Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Unit 4 complete Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Unit 4 complete - Assignment Example In the US, the government courts have exceptional locale (Neubauer and Meinhold, 2013). Topic ward alludes to a court’s duty over issues and ideas of a case (Neubauer and Meinhold, 2013). Then again, individual purview alludes to a court’s control over the people engaged with a case. In wrongdoing, causation of mischief must be affirmed. Likewise, an indicted individual probably been in the privilege mental state to ensure the legitimacy of case. Generally, the respondent individual ought to be demonstrated to have acted with perniciousness aforethought (Gross, 2012). In addition, the court procedure ought to demonstrate the respondent as having really acted or unlawfully precluded a demonstration. In specific cases, an investigator may decline to indict a given criminal case. For example, there could be unacceptable proof. Furthermore, an overabundance of cases may require delay of a given case. At the point when a specific gathering in a claim has unguarded purview, a few issues may emerge. In any case, such an individual may guide the case to suit one’s interests as opposed to the enthusiasm of equity. Furthermore, such an individual may commit errors that risk a claim procedure since one faces restricted addressing from different gatherings. In additio n, laxity from the single party may lead towards uncouth decisions. The US court’s framework has a hiercahy at the government and the states’ level. The administrative courts exist in each state, and they speak to the legal part of the US Federal government (Neubauer and Meinhold, 2013). Then again, the state courts work under the extraordinary states’ constitutions and laws. The government court framework works as far as areas and circuits. The circuit courts are the state redrafting courts, which report to the US Supreme Court. The state courts separate into preliminary courts, re-appraising courts, and most elevated state courts. The principle motivation behind US courts is to guard the individual opportunities and rights that each resident holds.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

A&P vs Araby

In this article I want to show contrasts between John Updike’s A&P and James Joyce’s Arbay. A portion of the things are that both of the creators talk about a similar thought of a youthful boy’s development for their adolescences. These young men need significantly more involvement in this present reality this accompanies time, age and furthermore experience. How is it for Sammy to grow up with his folks and arbay to grow up with his auntie and uncle? In these articles what might you do on the off chance that you were in a similar circumstance as these young men? How do these young men need to grow up and mature?Or do you feel that their activities may be somewhat over the edge Even however John Updikes’s and James Joyce vary in stories the two of them are discussing a similar sort of circumstance two young men that are growing up from their various circumstances from their adolesonces. This shared opinion turns out to be clear through the path both of the writers composed their papers. In John Updike’s exposition Sammy Works for A&p when he saw a gathering of young ladies come into the store while he was working immediately he made a decision about them on what they were wearing and what they looked like not even to stop to think about anything about there personality’s.In James Joyce’s article the writer alludes to the young lady of his fantasies as Megan’s sister? What is her name does he know anything about her. You can see where these accounts are beginning to each other to identify with each other. In John Updike’s exposition A&P Sammy Is recounting to the story from his point of view witch makes the paper less intriguing as I would see it. Then again with James Joyce’s paper Arbay he is somewhat increasingly Experienced and articulate with his words witch makes the exposition more interesting.Sammy from A&P has gotten exceptionally disturbed at his specific employment i n light of the fact that the clients are discourteous for various reasons: As he makes reference to â€Å"She’s one of the these sales register witches† (227). That created some serious trouble for him beause he rang up a container of Hiho wafers multiple times unintentionally. Sammy truly got bothered after that occurrence occurred at work I imagine that truly began to get him exasperated by then he was truly beginning to think sanely and not in a develop way. We see the creator and fundamental character of Araby as he fights with his adulthoodEmotions as he attempts to comprehend his emotions towards Megan’s sister each morning He follows her yet barely addresses her Still â€Å"her name resembled a summons to all my Foolish blood† (227). He is as yet a kid, since he is too frightened to even think about approaching her yet managing grown-up sentiments which he doesn't get it? His indignation is appeared toward the finish of the Story, since the bazaar is shut and there is nothing he can get for her and he says â€Å"he Sees himself as an animal driven and ridiculed by vanity† This again shows the fight ofHormones as he sees his emotions being founded on how he can intrigue Megan’s sister. The two young men are experiencing developing into adulthood contrastingly in their accounts Sammy being at the A&P considers his to be as the normal spot where the exhausting, terrible Average individuals go the young ladies he sees come in speak to a dream of his the preferred Merchandise that is better over normal the principle character of Araby likewise has a dream But in his chance to adulthood he attempts to purchase the young lady he had always wanted an item Therefore, It’s a subject appeared as the young men are developing into adulthood it is disappointing to bothSince the kid in Araby can't accomplish anything for the sister, and Sammy sees the Merchandise at A&P as normal and insignificant at any rate Va nity is baffling on the grounds that a great deal of young ladies like physical things and endowments from young men and for the kid in Araby he can't get this and thusly has flopped in having the option to dazzle the young lady Sammy considers the To be as not being sufficient for the swimming outfit young ladies which possibly why he concludes it isn't adequate for him either. One thing I need to call attention to is that in A&P we see the distinction between omeone in adulthood and somebody developing into it While Sammy wishes to see the young ladies in their swimming outfits that come into A&P, his supervisor reproves the young ladies, disclosing to them they have too small dress Sammy here speaks to the other side of pre-adulthood, where in his brain the young ladies are better than the normal lady who shop in A&P, the ones who are â€Å"house slaves in pin curlers† and â€Å"women with six kids and varicose veins mapping their legs† (64).His chief is the opposite side a ways into his adulthood who considers the to be as being foul, and even says something regarding whenever they will ave to come in â€Å"with their shoulders covered† (64) Sammy is so maddened at this he stops which shows the degree of feeling in the topic of developing into adulthood His Hormones have defeated his explanation and he follows up on his feelings. Despite the fact that there are unmistakable contrasts in â€Å"Arabay† and â€Å"A&P,† we see a similar subject of developing into adulthood in the two stories This isn't a simple assignment Both Sammy and the kid from Arabay end up disappointed as they experience their musings Sammy is worried about quality which is something he sees little of in theA&P, in the two his judgment of the A&P and ladies that normally are shopping in it The creator of Arabay is additionally worried about quality on an alternate level He plans to get a decent present for his friend’s si ster that is the young lady he is feeling his adulthood coordinated on. He is miserable when he goes to the bazaar, and sees that the vast majority of the things are gone and he can't give something to the young lady he had always wanted that fulfills him. In the two stories the young men share a typical dissatisfaction with their sentiments and change in mentalities, which show the inward disturbance of hormones, and their advancement to adulthood.

Thursday, August 13, 2020

Tips for Coping With the Life-Changing Loss of a Spouse

Tips for Coping With the Life-Changing Loss of a Spouse Relationships Spouses & Partners Print Tips for Coping With the Death of a Spouse By Sheri Stritof Sheri Stritof has written about marriage and relationships for 20 years. Shes the co-author of The Everything Great Marriage Book. Learn about our editorial policy Sheri Stritof Reviewed by Reviewed by Amy Morin, LCSW on January 24, 2020 facebook twitter instagram Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist, author of the bestselling book 13 Things Mentally Strong People Dont Do, and a highly sought-after speaker. Learn about our Wellness Board Amy Morin, LCSW on January 24, 2020 altrendo images / Stockbyte / Getty Images More in Relationships Spouses & Partners Marital Problems LGBTQ Violence and Abuse Losing a spouse can be devastating, whether the death is sudden or following a long illness. One day you are married; the next day you are single, alone, and grieving. Between the intense emotions, the lifestyle changes, and the many practical considerations that accompany the death of your spouse, you probably feel overwhelmed and anxious about your future. Advice for Dealing With Grief That Comes With the Loss of a Spouse Over time, the grief will likely subside and you will build a new life for yourself. In the meantime, here are some tips to help you cope. Go Easy on Yourself There is no right way to feel after losing your spouse. So many variables contribute to your reaction, including how long and happy your marriage was, how your spouse died, how old your children are (if you have them), and how dependent you were on one another. You may feel numb, shocked, brokenhearted, or anxious. You may feel guilty for being the one who is still alive or relieved that your spouse is no longer suffering if he or she was ill for a long time. You might even feel angry at your spouse for leaving you. You may cry a lot, or you may not. How you grieve is unique to you.?? Be prepared for friends and family who may not know what to say, avoid you, or try to comfort you with cliches (such as hes in a better place). Often, well-meaning people are uncomfortable talking about death, but it doesnt mean they dont care. If you can, tell those close to you what you need (or dont need). If people avoid mentioning your spouse, for example, and you actually want to talk about him, let them know. Keep in mind that your friends and family are also grieving and may find it comforting to share memories of your spouse. Take Care of Your Physical Health Grieving can take a toll on your body as well as your emotions. You may have no appetite or trouble sleeping. It may be easier said than done, but try to take care of yourself by eating well, exercising, and getting enough sleep. Try to avoid drowning your sorrows by drinking excessively, as that can actually exacerbate your pain. One study found that the risk of death for the surviving spouse goes up, particularly in the first three months of bereavement.??  Taking care of your physical health in the months after your loss is essential. Be sure to let your healthcare provider know if you are having trouble following through on everyday activities, like getting dressed or fixing meals for yourself. Seek Support Coping with the aftermath of loss is often extremely lonely and confusing, and it is not unusual to feel depressed. The loss of a spouse is also associated with an elevated risk of the onset of a number of different psychiatric disorders. Studies suggest that a lack of social support after an unexpected loss is a key predictor of depression.?? For this reason, it is important to reach out to other people in your life for help.  You may be inclined to turn inward, but youll probably fare better if you seek support from family, friends, your religious community (if you have one), or a counselor. Joining a support group with other people who are grieving can also be very comforting. Your healthcare provider, therapist, or local hospital can usually provide information on locating such groups. Numerous bereavement groups are available online as well. The 8 Best Online Therapy Programs Sort Your Social Life Navigating your social life as a single person can be complicated. If you and your spouse socialized with other couples regularly, you may not know how to fit in now. You may feel awkward going to parties and other events solo. Tell your friends how you feel and explain that you may need to avoid couples dinner parties and get-togethers for a while and see friends one-on-one instead. However, being single can also provide a welcome opportunity to seek out new friends. Consider volunteering or taking a class to motivate you to get out of the house and pursue something meaningful.?? Signs of Complicated Grief Losing a spouse is life-changing and profound grief is a normal reaction. Sometimes, though, grief is so profound that it interferes with your ability to move forward with your own life. This is known as complicated grief and it affects an estimated 7% of bereaved people. Signs include:?? Feeling as if you have no purpose anymoreHaving difficulty performing everyday activitiesExperiencing continued feelings of guilt, or blaming yourself for your loved one’s deathWishing you had died as wellLosing the desire to socialize If you cant get past these feelings, talk to your doctor or a therapist, who can recommend treatment options. A Word From Verywell As hard as losing a spouse is, it is possible to create a new and fulfilling life for yourself while still cherishing the memories of your relationship.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Human Rights Within The World - 1313 Words

â€Å"Behind every exquisite thing that existed, there was something tragic†Ã¢â‚¬â€Oscar Wilde. Everything good in the world has a definitive start that sprouts from inequalities, oppression, and a need for fairness. With this in mind, things such as human rights are dated back to violent history. Nazi Germany arguably sparked an interest in human rights as their â€Å"good triumphed through the acts of a selfless few or out of the depths of evil†. Human rights refer to the laws, acts and policies initiated in order to protect vulnerable, oppressed people in the world and allow them to possibly thrive in this world. Although women, sexual minorities, and racialized minorities all play a significant role in the development of human rights—racialized†¦show more content†¦Genocide, under the article II of the 1948 UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, alludes the concept of an eradication of a particular group of peopleà ¢â‚¬â€mainly minority groups—that includes the murder, dealing bodily harm to members of that group, and forcing the group to live under certain conditions. To begin, the First World ware demonstrates a fragile state when violations of human rights occurred during the mass murder of Armenians in 1915-16. During these grim times, the Ottoman empire was shrinking and their opposition to Russia failed—this caused the blame to shift to Armenians who were suspected of â€Å"being pro-Russia†. The Armenian intellectuals were forcibly executed, causing many to later be sent off to die in labour camps or on death marches to concentration camps. The tragedy occurred during a time where human rights were not highly regarded and the immense lack of these basic rights caused many to be hurt. Moreover, the one of the most detrimental events to occur was the existence of Nazi Germany and the genocide against Jews during World War II. An evident relationship has been illum inated by Diner who states that the Holocaust is a part of European identity that forges a connection between the tragedy and increased means to protect humanity. International law on these bare necessities humans have rights to indicates how crucial it was to prevent upcomingShow MoreRelatedThe Fundamental International Charter For Human Rights1444 Words   |  6 PagesThe topic of universal human rights is a complex and largely contested area of international relations. Though often highly regarded in â€Å"Western† states, the notion of individual rights is highly debatable in other parts of the world. In a struggle to reconcile regional traditions and world cultures, efforts to create implement a universally accepted charter of human rights have met many obstacles. Key issues including minority groups, gender, and the concept of individuality versus collectivismRead MoreHuman Rights are a Source of Conflict in the World Essay854 Words   |  4 Pagesglobal atmosphere i t is understood that human rights are a source of conflict. It is understood that the policy of non- intervention in states causes problems in retrospect to colonialism, and in addition to understanding that human rights are a source of conflict as they impede upon the rights of women and undermine a large proportion of the worlds population causing conflict between genders and in the state itself. In supplementation to this, human rights and state security come to conflict in accordanceRead MoreAre human rights innate and universal? Essay1688 Words   |  7 PagesAre human rights innate and universal? Living Human Rights Post WWII on the 10 December 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was espoused by the General Assembly of the United Nations in order to agree on the notion that such atrocities that occurred throughout the Great War and the Second World War would not ever be reciprocated. The document that was drawn up in less than two years by the UN and Western states, and although ambitious it would guarantee a premise for life andRead MoreThe Global Human Rights System1587 Words   |  7 PagesThe human rights system has been created by both top-down and bottom-up dynamics, by the relationship between the global and the local. Discuss. The global human rights system has undoubtably been produced and sustained by both top-down and bottom-up dynamics which operate on global and local scales. It is because of these polar hierarchic systems that human rights violations against individuals and groups at a local level can be recognised and understood globally and acted on consequently usingRead MoreImportance Of The United Nations1129 Words   |  5 PagesNations is known to promote world stability, keep peace around the globe and to promote international co-operation between countries. The United Nations currently helps 193 countries. Not only do they help with the political side of things, they also help countries that do not have the proper necessities to survive such as food, water, and shelter as well as countries that have suffered through a natural disaster and need help rebuilding. There are still many third world countries in today’s societyRead MoreFor The Last Two Decades, Human Rights Advocacy And The 783 Words   |  4 Pagesdecades, human rights advocacy and the documentation of human rights abuse have embodied naming and shaming, a tactic that attempts to subvert notorious human rights abusers as well as coerce local state powers into acting and condemning the abuse taking place within their state or region. Initially, the tactic proved to be remarkably effective, resulting in a â€Å"global outrage† towards human rights abuse and an increased pressure on governments to challenge the abuse taking place within their bordersRead MoreInternational Law Changed During Post Wwii New World1576 Words   |  7 Pageschanged in a post WWII new world order in which the world was forced to face one of the most disturbing and difficult conflicts in its history. Regions across all frontiers were affected by the spread of nuclear weapons, genocide, tyranny and other manmade strategies to deflect the stability and tranquility of a once calmer and more serene world. Institutions such as the United Nations were devised after the end of a war that convinced nations that what happens around the world affects each and everyoneRead MoreThe Contribution Of The Enlightenment Era1725 Words   |  7 Pagesphilosophy the idea of human rights was first introduced. Philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes and John Locke wrote articles regarding the role of the individual and the role the individual plays in society. They elaborated on how governments are supposed to respect and honor the inalienable human rights attained during birth. The ideas that were presented during this time period have continued to have an impact in today’s society and provide an understanding of how humans around the world, regardless of genderRead MoreThe Global Impact Of Human Trafficking1640 Words   |  7 PagesThe Global impact of Human Trafficking Human trafficking is a global issue that receives very little attention throughout the modern world; this issue effects every country on the global and all different types of cultures. Hillary Clinton said in 2009 â€Å"Trafficking thrives in the shadows, and it can be easy to dismiss it as something that happens to someone else, in somewhere else, but that is not the case. Trafficking is a crime that involves every nation on earth, and that includes our own.† (BehnkeRead MoreLiberalism And The United Nations878 Words   |  4 Pagestowards peace attained with a state’s ambition for dominance. â€Å"Self-interest† has two definitions in accordance to liberalism and realism. Liberalism considers the measure of power within states through stable economies, the possibility of peace and cooperation, as well as the concepts of political freedoms (human rights). Realism believes states are driven by competitive self-interest; international organizations hold little t o no real influence because states are self-preserved. International relations

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Welfare Reform Drug Testing for Government Assistance...

Drug testing should be mandatory in all states for those receiving or applying for government assistance, such as TANF (Transitional Assistance to Needy Families), SNAP, Unemployment Benefits and even those receiving Pell Grants to continue their education; or should it? This is a question everyone has an opinion on from the politicians to the general public. I will attempt to show arguments against and for the program of drug testing that has already been adopted in some states, such as Florida (Tarren Bragdon, Foundation for Government Accountability), Arizona and Missouri (Aileen, Suitcase Clinic). Welfare is defined as: of, relating to, or concerned with welfare and especially with improvement of disadvantaged social groups†¦show more content†¦The children should not suffer because of the actions of their guardians. They depend on the traditional Welfare system. (Robert Rector, The Heritage Foundation, pg. 4). â€Å"Practically, drug tests would only identify those recipients who had recently used drugs, not those who have alcohol and drug problems and need treatment.† (pg.1). They also believe that alcohol is a â€Å"far bigger problem than illegal drug use.† (pg. 1) How about students going to school, continuing their education using the FAFSA or â€Å"Pell Grants;† or those receiving unemployment benefits, using the money the have worked so hard for? They also need assistance to continue said education and be able to apply for jobs and/or become productive, self-sufficient, responsible members of society. The women especially have been the focus of â€Å"The 1996 Welfare Reform Act.† (American Civil Liberties Union, pg. 1). Republicans intended to use this law to â€Å"require as many people as possible to leave the welfare system in search of self-sufficiency. (Ron Haskins, Brookings). These are all great arguments of the topic at hand. Now I will attempt to show the arguments of those who are ‘for’ the drug testing of welfare recipients and for those applying for assistance. The 1st argument was on the cost of drug testing not only on those being tested, but also the cost of the federal/state/local governments. Though this is a valid argument,Show MoreRelatedThe Issue Of Drug Testing Welfare Recipients And Applicants1231 Words   |  5 Pagesissue of drug testing welfare recipients and applicants. The journals and articles used to determine whether drug testing is necessary or a hindrance to public assistance applicants, recipients and the government vary in their argument on the effects of those who receive assistance. The study, completed by Anderson, Shannon, Schyb and Goldstein (2002) determined that, due to the change in Welfare reform in 1996, the disruption of benefits increased the risk homelessness and usage of drugs and alcoholRead MoreWelfare Drug Testing Persuasive Speech1704 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction a.i) Government assistance, or welfare, is a very broad term. There are many different welfare programs available in the United States e.g., food stamps, cash assistance, and government housing. Currently there is mass debate, in courtrooms across the U.S., regarding the legality and morality of pre-assistance drug testing. This report is intended to familiarize the reader with the history of welfare reform; the histories of drug testing in regards to assistance eligibility; and persuadeRead MoreEssay about Drug Testing For Missouri Welfare Recipients907 Words   |  4 Pagesof Representatives passed a bill and sent it to the senate that would require drug testing for those receiving state Temporary Assistance for Needy Family (TANF) funds. Funding from food stamps, medicare, and public housing would not be affected by this bill (Keller – House). According to Columbia Tribune reporter Rudi Keller, the bill is very similar to the Arizona law which is the only other state th at tests welfare recipients. Missouri and Arizona would use a questionare and interview which wouldRead MoreDrug Testing Welfare Recipients Essay1114 Words   |  5 Pagesthat in order to obtain a job, some people go through drug testing while drug and alcohol abusers receive free, no strings attached, financial assistance (see appendix A)? Food stamps and Medicaid are provided to low and no income Americans who would otherwise do without. According to, a majority of the illegal drug use in American adults is tied to unemployed citizens. While there are many people who disagree with testing welfare recipients, the truth is that the pros greatly outweighRead MoreBenefits of Drug Testing for Welfare Recipients Essay1330 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Random drug screening involves the experimental analysis that utilizes specimens such as saliva, hair, blood or urine in order to determine the presence of certain drugs or their metabolites. These tests are usually done to ascertain the presence or absence of prohibited drugs or steroids. On the other hand, the state welfare assistance/ government assistance is a government funded program that was started in 1930 during which period US citizens and the rest of the world were facingRead MoreShould Drug Testing Welfare Recipients?1679 Words   |  7 Pagesthose who test positive for drugs should be able to receive welfare. It was an argument that flooded social media, arguments filling comments with opinions. It is a subject that continues to be discussed within our peer groups, our communities, and our states. This paper will discuss the opinions of individual’s within the country, the beneficial factors of drug testing welfare recipients as well as the unbeneficial factors , as well as who decides if drug testing welfare recipients goes into effectRead MoreDrug Testing the Less Fortunate 1023 Words   |  4 PagesShould drug testing be a necessity for all state and federal aid programs? Drug testing welfare recipients have been a major issue across the United States for a few years now. Many indicate that if working class people are subject to a test prior to hire or randomly during the duration of employment, why should those that don’t have to work for money not have the same treatment? The government estimated that random annual drug testing for welfare recipients would cost each taxpayer an additionalRead MoreEssay On Drug Testing956 Words   |  4 Pagesreceive government assistance had to be drug tested prior to receiving help, like many who must be tested to keep their job? Many people must go through drug testing to get a job, then after they have it, they may be selected to be randomly tested again to keep their job. There are pe ople down on their luck or going through a rough patch where they need to receive government assistance, nothing but an application needs to be filled out prior to receiving payment from the government. Drug testingRead MoreOur Current US Welfare System Is in Urgent Need of Reform Essay1294 Words   |  6 PagesWelfare is a government program that provides food, money, housing, medical care, and other things people need in order to survive. These programs are designed to help elderly, children, disabled individuals who cannot support their families on their current income. In order to qualify for assistance the individual’s income must be below the poverty line. There are about sixty assistance programs, however most people receive help though Social Security, Medicaid, food stamps and Temporary AssistanceRead MoreDoes Welfare Encourage Dependency?1368 Words   |  6 PagesJar’ee Rhodes Professor Davis ENC 1102 16 July 2012 Does Welfare Encourage Dependency? Created by Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression, the idea of welfare was to help those who are living in poverty and need help to feed their families. Since then, welfare has helped people in many ways, such as unemployment insurance and food stamps. However, with over 4.4 million people, Welfare has evolved from a program that is designed to help people who have fallen on hard times, into a

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Test Free Essays

string(143) " Once the ISO Quality Standard has been launched, Rand Water can evaluate the formal adoption of the Quality Standard within the organization\." TABLE OF CONTENTS1. PURPOSE22. SCOPE23. We will write a custom essay sample on Test or any similar topic only for you Order Now REFERENCES24. TERMS, DEFINITIONS ABBREVIATIONS35. RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY36. RECORD DATA KEEPING37. DOCUMENT CHANGE HISTORY38. ASSET MANAGEMENT DEFINITION49. STAKEHOLDERS410. STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS411. ASSET MANAGEMENT QUALITY FRAMEWORK512. ASSET MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES513. ASSET MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENT PROCESS1014. ASSET MANAGEMENT STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT1115. ASSET MANAGEMENT SYSTEM COMPONENTS1116. CONCLUSION18| LIST OF FIGURES Figure 21: Scope of Asset Management Framework (PAS55)2 Figure 121: Rand Water Supply and Purification Systems6 Figure 122: Asset Management Plans7 Figure 123: Asset Management Planning and Management Structure8 Figure 124: Organogram9 Figure 151: Asset Management System Components12 1. PURPOSE The purpose of this document is to provide a framework for the adoption and implementation of asset management for Rand Water’s physical asset portfolio. 2. SCOPE This framework applies to physical assets associated with production infrastructure under the jurisdiction of Rand Water. Assets consist of buildings and property, pipelines, civil structures, mechanical equipment, electrical equipment water treatment process plants, and automation equipment. It excludes human assets, financial assets, information assets, intangible assets, and movable equipment. Figure 21: Scope of Asset Management Framework (PAS55) 3. REFERENCES The following documents must be read in conjunction with this Framework. Document Title| Document No. Location| Quality Management System Requirements| ISO 9001:2000 | RW Library| Environmental Management System Requirements| ISO14001:2004| RW Library| Occupational Health and Safety Act and Regulations| OHS Act (85 of 1993)| RW Library| Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series| OHSAS 18001:2007| RW Library| International Infrastructure Management Manual – South Africa Edition 2006 | ISBN No:0-473-10685-X| RW Library| Asset Management Part 1: Specification for the optimized management of Assets| BSI PAS 55-1:2008| RW Library| Asset Management Part 2: Guidelines for the application of PAS 55-1| BSI PAS 55-2:2008| RW Library| Rand Water – Strategic Asset Management Process Guides – Know Your Assets| RW SAM 60001 BPM SIS| RW Library| 4. TERMS, DEFINITIONS ABBREVIATIONS These are terms used in the organization are unique to the company terminology, business and culture. AMAsset Management AMFAsset Management Framework AMPAsset Management Plan KPIKey Performance Indicators OMOperations and Maintenance RDResearch and Development RWRand Water SAMStrategic Asset Management 5. RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY The Chief Executive is accountable and Portfolio Heads are responsible for the implementation of Asset Management in RW. The General Manager: Strategic Asset Management is responsible for the implementation of Strategic Asset Management with regards to production infrastructure under the jurisdiction of Rand Water. 6. RECORD DATA KEEPING Record Document| Form/Doc Number| Location | Retention Period| | | | | | | | | 7. DOCUMENT CHANGE HISTORY The following table contains the history of this document with a description of each revision. Date| Previous revision number| New revision number| Description of each revision| 23 Sep 2010| N/A| 0| First draft| 17 Nov 2010| 0| A| Second draft| 10 Dec 2010| a| B| Third draft| 17 Feb 2011| b| C| Fourth draft| 9 Mar 2011| c| D| Fifth draft| 8. ASSET MANAGEMENT DEFINITION The following definition for asset management is adopted, based on PAS 55: Asset Management is the systematic and coordinated activities and practices through which Rand Water optimally manages its assets, their associated performance, risks and expenditures over their lifecycle for the purpose of achieving its organizational strategic plan. 9. STAKEHOLDERS The following stakeholders are relevant to asset management: * Customers who purchase water from Rand Water; * Suppliers and service providers; * Government; * Standards authorities; and * Auditor General of South Africa. 10. STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS The following legislation and regulation are relevant: Annual Financial Statements are required to be prepared in compliance with the South African Statements of Generally Accepted Accounting Practice (SA GAAP), the Water Services Act No 108 of 1997, Companies Act No 61 of 1973, and the Public Finance Management Act No 1 of 1999 as amended. The Constitution (and its amendments) secures the right of every Citizen to sufficient water; The Water Act ensures that everyone has access to water, water resources are conserved, protected and managed, proper water resource planning takes place, the costs of managing and developing the resource is addressed and that water resource institutions are established. The Water Services Act defines the rights to basic water supply, the setting of national standards and norms, water services planning, regulation of water services, establishment of water boards, the monitoring of water service provision and the promotion of effective water resource management and conservation. The Water Services Act is supported by the Strategic Framework for Water Services which sets out an implementation framework for the Act and gives effect to the regulation of water services delivery. The principle objectives of the PFMA are to secure transparency, accountability, and sound management of the revenue, expenditure, assets and liabilities of the institutions to which this Act applies. In terms of this Act, from an asset management perspective Rand Water is: * responsible for the effective, efficient, economical and transparent use of the resources of the department, trading entity or constitutional institution; * responsible for the management, including the safe-guarding and the maintenance of the assets, and for the management of the liabilities; The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSA) (85 of 1993, Construction Regulations) state that: the owner of any â€Å"structure† (incl. nfrastructure such as waterworks, buildings, drainage works and roads) to maintain such structure in a manner that the structure remains safe for continued use and such maintenance records shall be kept and made available to an inspector for continued use. 11. ASSET MANAGEMENT QUA LITY FRAMEWORK The development of an ISO Standard for Asset Management is currently in progress. The ISO Standard development is being led by the British Standards Institute (BSI) as secretariat and there are 22 countries participating and 14 countries observing. South Africa is participating with representation from the SABS. The ISO standard is expected to be launched in late 2011. The final ISO standard is expected to be substantially aligned with the current PAS55 specification for asset management, which has widespread adoption around the world by both public and private enterprises. Rand Water will adopt the PAS55 specification as an interim framework for the implementation of asset management until the launch of the ISO Quality Standard for Asset Management. Once the ISO Quality Standard has been launched, Rand Water can evaluate the formal adoption of the Quality Standard within the organization. You read "Test" in category "Essay examples" 12. ASSET MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES The strategic assets of Rand Water work together as one large system, for which custodianship is assigned to the Senior Manager Assets. However, the Rand Water assets can currently be split into 4 main supply systems and 2 main purification systems, on the basis of geography and function. The systems are the following: * Eikenhof Supply System * Zwartkopjies Supply System * Palmiet Supply System * Mapleton Supply System * Vereeniging Purification System * Zuikerbosch Purification System These systems are shown in the figure below. Figure 121: Rand Water Supply and Purification Systems The management objectives of the Supply Systems are somewhat different from the management objectives of the Purification Systems. The management objectives of the Supply Systems are focused on satisfying commercial customer service levels, managing current and future user demand, and managing water delivery including water conveyance, pumping, storing, and end user delivery control. The Purification System management objectives revolve around managing the purification of raw water to agreed quantity and quality service levels. Given the vast magnitude of the assets under Rand Water control and the different management objectives, it is prudent to split the asset management planning responsibility according to the different supply systems and then roll these plans up into a consolidated Asset Management Plan (AMP) for the entire organization. This is shown schematically below. Eikenhof Supply System AMP Zwartkopjies Supply System AMP Palmiet Supply System AMP Mapleton Supply System AMP Vereeniging Purification System AMP Zuikerbosch Purification System AMP Rand Water Consolidated AMP Figure 122: Asset Management Plans Although the management objectives and the planning are logically split according to the functional areas above, the technical expertise is asset type specific and cuts across the different functional areas. Seven areas of technical expertise have been identified below and a detailed breakdown of assets is provided in Annexure A. : 1. Buildings and Property; 2. Civil Structures; 3. Pipelines; 4. Electrical Equipment; 5. Mechanical Equipment; 6. Process Plant; and 7. Automation Equipment. In order to effectively manage the asset portfolio, planning should done by functional area, with each functional area being assigned to one Asset Management Planner. The technical expertise of managing the assets is best arranged by asset group and should be headed by an Asset Manager. The Asset Management Planner should have expertise in planning and the primary management responsibility of developing and implementing Asset Management Plans for each Supply System. This includes defining service levels, forecasting demand, integration, optimised decision making, and developing long term financial plans. The Asset Manager should have a strong technical background in design, rehabilitation, and maintenance of the asset group and the primary management responsibility of optimally managing the lifecycle of the asset group, bearing in mind the priorities and constraints of each Supply System. This includes managing condition data collection, assessing asset risk, setting standards, and the development of maintenance and rehabilitation strategies. These two groups will interact in a matrix structure as shown below. Figure 123: Asset Management Planning and Management Structure It should be noted that the Asset Managers help the Asset Management Planners develop the best asset management strategies to achieve the specific objectives of the Supply System. For example, the strategy to manage pumps in a Supply System may be different from the strategy to manage pumps in a Purification System as the pumps pose different risks to the achievement of the management outcomes. Even between two different Supply Systems, similar pumps may have different strategies as they may pose different risks to each particular Supply System. The organogram under the Senior Manager Assets is shown below. Figure 124: Organogram There is substantial integration required between all the units under the Senior Manager: Assets to implement effective asset management practices. These interfaces will mature with the implementation of a structured asset management improvement process. 13. 14. ASSET MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENT PROCESS Rand Water is at the initiation stage of the implementation of asset management as a holistic practice across its structure. A new structure has been formed under a strategic asset manager and the mandate has been given for the structure to implement asset management best practice. The strategic asset manager now needs to proceed with the implementation process. The process for the adoption of asset management within Rand Water follows the approach advocated by PAS55 with additional guidance from the IIMM. The process starts with the development of an asset management policy that is aligned with the strategic objectives of the organization. The policy then guides the development of an asset management strategy, which is a set of actions, to enable asset management within the organization. The strategy needs to be implemented in a manner that develops internal capacity in the organization to execute the asset management practices as a part of everyday business. A process of improvement management then needs to be adopted to ensure that the asset management capabilities are further developed and refined with time. The asset management strategy implementation will require substantial change management to raise the capability from awareness through to integration. The process is shown in the table below. | Asset Management Policy| Asset Management Strategy| Strategy Implementation| Improvement Management| What is it? | Broadly outlines how and why AM will be undertaken across the organisation as a whole. | Specifies actions to be undertaken to improve AM capability to achieve specific objectives. Implementation of the identified actions . | Continuous refinement of the strategy and implementation of revised actions. | Objective| Provides the organisational foundation and mandate to undertake AM in a structured and coordinated manner. | Develops a structured set of actions aimed at enabling AM within the organisation. | Develops internal capability to implement and sustain AM practices. | Refines AM capabilities through continuous structured improvement management. | Description| * Organizational context, importance of AM * Organizational vision and goals and AM vision and goals * AM policies underpinning AM goals * Key performance measures for policies incl. imeframes * AM responsibilities and relationships * AM integration with business processes| * Description of current practices * Description of required practices to achieve AM vision and goals * Identification of the gap between current practices and future vision * Identification and description of strategies to close the gaps in a structured manner| * Raising of awareness across the organization * Developing of technical understanding * Embedding of AM practices through application * Integrat ion of AM practices to achieve multi-disciplinary AM benefits| * Optimisation of AM practices through refinement and enhancement * Innovation of new and best practices that deliver step changes rather than incremental change| 15. ASSET MANAGEMENT STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT The asset management strategy specifies the actions that need to be undertaken to develop, improve and embed asset management capacity within the organization in order to achieve the corporate objectives. The process of strategy development is to assess the organization’s asset management system by means of an asset management practices audit, which compares the organization’s current asset management practices against the requirements of PAS 55 and international best practice. The audit is made against the asset management system components that comprise asset management within the organization. The identified best practice â€Å"gaps† are prioritized and programmed in an asset management strategy to drive improvement. Furthermore, the audit provides a benchmark to measure organizational improvement and maturity annually. 16. ASSET MANAGEMENT SYSTEM COMPONENTS The asset management system is a whole of life asset management framework that reflects the management and control level in the organization as well as the different stages of the asset lifecycle i. e. he system addresses the strategic, tactical and operational management of the organization as well as the planning, implementation and asset care phases of the asset lifecycle. Note that the disposal stage is included under the asset care phase. The asset management system components illustrated below provide a high level structure for the strategy development. Each component should be reviewed in detail to determine the level of maturity of current practices, the best appropriate maturity level, and to define the actions required to achieve best practice. The components are shown in the figure below and described in greater detail in the text that follows. FIGURE PROVIDED SEPARATELY Figure 151: Asset Management System Components Strategic Management Components Asset Management Policy and Strategy An Asset Management Policy is a description of an organisation’s approach to Asset Management. It provides both the link between the overall organisational strategic plan and an effective Asset Management Plan, and also provides the start of the rationale that ultimately justifies every Asset Management activity the organisation undertakes. An Asset Management Strategy documents the organisation’s overall approach to managing physical assets. It describes how the Asset Management Policy is to be implemented. As such it needs to be closely aligned with that policy as well as linking to other associated higher level strategies (e. g. operational strategic plans etc. ) Risk Management Policy A Risk Management Policy is a description of an organisation’s approach to Risk Management. It addresses the management of risk between the strategic, tactical and operational level of management and the linkages between these levels. It is closely aligned to the Asset Management Policy. Statutory Compliance Organisations must be fully aware of the duties imposed under legal instruments for all of their activities and must ensure its systems and procedures fully comply with the requirements. The organisation should have a system for identifying the laws and regulations applying to all activities involved with physical assets and to ensure its systems and procedures comply with the requirements. Organisational Alignment and Commitment Organizational alignment and commitment across the organization is essential for the successful implementation of asset management. The Asset Management Policy, Strategy, and Plans should be aligned with corporate objectives. The asset management strategy implementation should be overseen by a steering committee with representation by departments including finance, corporate, planning, maintenance, operations, and project management. Asset management information and plans should be widely available and used across the organization to inform strategic and tactical plans across the organization. A strong commitment to an asset management improvement process by senior executive management, backed by the availing of adequate resources to implement the process, has proved to be a significant determinant of asset management success and lead to the realisation of asset management benefits. Asset Management Structure and Responsibilities The definition of roles and responsibilities for the implementation of the Asset Management Strategy is necessary to ensure clarity of purpose and to manage interfaces between line functions. Asset management KPIs should strengthen the accountability towards the implementation of the strategy. Customer Service Level Management The setting and management of Customer Service Levels have substantial influence on the Asset Management Plans, which have the objective of providing the desired level of service in the most cost-effective manner (IIMM). The setting of Customer Service Levels should be undertaken in a consultative basis with customers and should reflect customer expectations. Improvement Actions and Management of Change Improvement actions and management of change are the combined processes, systems and procedures in place in an organisation to specifically deal with corrective actions, preventive actions and continuous improvement actions. Financing Strategy The financing strategy should quantify the total cost of asset ownership and the funding needs for additional capacity, level of service changes, asset renewal, and maintenance and operations over a long term planning period (20 years). The impact on funding sources and tariff setting should be determined to manage the surplus/deficit and to maintain financial sustainability over the long term. Investment decision making should incorporate organizational risk and triple-bottom-line consequences in the analysis framework. Skills Enhancement and Management Skills Enhancement and Management refers to the processes utilised to manage personnel training and development, along with staff retention systems. Tactical Management Components Subgroup: Planning Demand Forecasting Demand forecasting is the estimation of the change in demand based on population and land use change within a long term planning horizon (20 years). Demand forecasts incorporate several demand influences including service level changes, pricing, customer types, and consumption trends. Several demand forecast scenarios are developed and associated risks are quantified. Failure Prediction (capacity) Capacity failure prediction is the evaluation of capacity against forecast demand to predict failure time and the associate risks thereof. Failure Prediction (condition) Condition failure prediction is the prediction of asset decay and the associated risks of asset deterioration over time along with the dentification of appropriate asset strategies to manage the risks. Strategic Maintenance Planning The Strategic Maintenance Plan documents the continuing suitability, adequacy, effectiveness and efficiency of the Asset Care function by addressing formal compliance audits results, performance against KPIs, incident results, progress against previous management reviews, and plans for improvement. Reliability Engineering ; RAM analysis Reliability, Availability, Maintainability (RAM) Analysis provides organisational risk based assessments to highlight which assets are providing optimised return on investment and are being administered effectively at lowest cost. It involves understanding the concept of the three critical factors and how each affects the other. RAM can be applied at any point in the project lifecycle from concept to operation. However, it is most cost-effective at the early detailed design stage when the required operating parameters are known, equipment designs/vendors have been selected and engineering feedback from the RAM study can still be effectively and efficiently incorporated into the overall design. Asset Lifecycle Analysis Life cycle analysis involves the analysis of all costs associated with owning an asset. It is the sum of all recurring and non-recurring costs over the full life span of an asset or system. It includes the purchase price, installation cost, operating costs, maintenance and upgrade costs and the salvage value at the end of ownership or its useful life. Optimised Decision Making Optimised Decision Making is the process of identifying and prioritising projects/interventions required to manage risks at optimal timing, along with multi-criteria prioritisation based on lifecycle cost and triple-bottom-line based consequence analysis. The decision making is integrated across service disciplines and functional areas to derive the optimal project/intervention program that results in the best investment for the organization. Investment Analysis Investment Analysis refers to the evaluation framework and financial analysis used to evaluate the viability of the investments and to inform investment decision making. Investment analysis includes financial modelling and the quantification of net present value, benefit-cost ratios, risk reduction benefits, societal benefits, etc. Asset Management Plan The Asset Management Plan informs the organization of how the assets will be managed over the long term (20 years) along with a short term implementation plan (5 years). The Asset Management Plan highlights the changes in demand, service levels, and asset condition along with the risks that these pose to the organization. It quantifies the long term funding needs and constraints and explains how the funding will be prioritised between the competing needs. It provides a prioritised short term (5 year) project/intervention program for implementation. It also incorporates the asset management improvement plan, which guides the organization on the practices to improve over the short term. Subgroup: Implementation Lifecycle Design Optimisation Lifecycle Design Optimisation is the process of incorporating lifecycle analysis, maintenance strategy, and maintenance constraints into the design phase to ensure that infrastructure is designed in a manner that minimises the long term lifecycle cost of asset ownership. Operational Readiness and Commissioning Operational Readiness is a structured systemic process that is used to prepare for the project operational phase. It is used to ensure that new or modified assets or systems are able to commence operation in the desired and expected manner. It is an integrated, proactive, considered approach to projects that ensures that people are operationally ready, systems are operationally ready, and assets are operationally ready. Commissioning is an integral part of the Operational Readiness process that refers to the execution of the testing, dynamic verification and acceptance plans for the assets to ensure the asset has been delivered to the required quality and performance criteria. Equipment Standardisation Equipment Standardisation describes the continual improvement method of reducing the cost of inventory and maintenance, by reducing instances of machinery, materials or spare parts that are one-off or stand-alone compared to others in use at a site. When equipment is standardised, one suite of spare parts can be used, and training for personnel is reduced, which in turn reduces overall maintenance cost. Subgroup: Asset Care Maintenance Performance Management (KPIs) Performance metrics (KPIs) are measures of an organisation’s activities and performance and enable maintenance performance to be monitored against specific targets. Asset Strategies Asset Strategy Development is the process to ensure that appropriate maintenance activities are performed with optimum effectiveness and efficiency to allow an organisation to achieve its business objectives at the lowest asset lifecycle cost. Failure Analysis and Root Cause Mitigation Failure Analysis and Root Cause Mitigation is the identification of potential costly failures and mitigation of all possible root causes of such failures. â€Å"Apollo Root Cause Analysis† is an event-based problem solving technique widely used as a leading practice to identify failure modes and effects on the process. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) are reliability based techniques and products that can be used to solve a wide range of reliability problems. Reliability Centred Maintenance Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) is a process that is used to determine what sort of maintenance needs to be carried out on any physical asset with a focus on preserving its system functions, rather than preserving the equipment. RCM is a logical, structured framework for determining the optimum mix of applicable and effective maintenance activities needed to sustain the desired level of operational reliability of systems and equipment while ensuring their safe and economical operation and support. External benchmarking Benchmarking is a continuous improvement tool that is used to achieve improved performance by measuring the organisation against other organisations that are identified as exhibiting leading practice worldwide. Sustainability Sustainability is the evaluation of the environmental, economic and social impact of the assets and the extent to which the triple-bottom-line elements are incorporated in the organisation’s practices. Loss Mapping and Analysis All organisations are working to get competitive returns from their investments in assets. The complexity in plants and equipment through process automation and technology has substantially increased the number of problems that can cause production problems. To identify the source of the problems which contribute to major losses is a very important criterion to prioritise the process improvement projects. Maintenance/Operations Integration Maintenance/Operations Integration is a management principle with derivative actions, and is designed to combine the organisational functions of the Operations and Maintenance groups in order to become more effective and efficient. Integration ensures that the human resources of both departments have a clear, common and collective purpose to improve the equipment performance, and subsequently the benefits to the business. Operational Risk Analysis (compliance, contingency plan, risk management) The Operational Risk Management (ORM) process is undertaken to identify and quantify risk exposure and then develop suitable strategies, plans and procedures to maximise its upside and minimise its downside exposures. Operational Management Components Subgroup: Planning Planning Data Collection (condition, usage, risk) Planning data collection refers to the collection of information for planning purposes, which usually includes condition, usage, and risk data amongst other data. This information typically covers the entire asset group and is used to identify projects/interventions that need to be implemented over the planning horizon. Planning Information Management (condition, usage, risk, GIS) Planning Information Management refers to application of systems to manage planning information. Due to the different nature of planning and maintenance data, planning data typically does not reside is a CMMS, but rather resides within a GIS and planning database. Linkages between systems are important to allow the transfer of data for planning and analysis. Subgroup: Implementation Material and Contract Management (vendor reliability, material management) Vendor Reliability refers to the capacity and capability of a vendor (or group of vendors) to consistently supply goods and services to the client in a timely manner as per defined specifications and standards. Materials Management is the complete set of processes and procedures that are used to ensure that resources other than personnel, tools and equipment are readily available to support all maintenance activities. Subgroup: Asset Care Maintenance Information Mgmt (CMMS) Maintenance Information Management entails acquiring, organising, maintaining and retrieving maintenance information. A Computerised Maintenance Management System (CMMS) is a system to assist with the effective and efficient management of maintenance activities through the application of computer technology. It generally includes elements such as a Work Order system, as well as facilities for scheduling Routine Maintenance Tasks, and recording and storing Standard Jobs, Bills of Materials and Applications Parts Lists, and other associated features. Maintenance Identification and Prioritisation Maintenance Identification is the process of defining what needs to be done to an existing asset to either ensure it remains in a state whereby it can perform its stated function, or can be efficiently returned to such a state. Maintenance Prioritisation is the process of determining a ranking or rating for a defined amount of work, based on an objective assessment of the importance of the work, in terms of the impact failure of the asset would have. Asset Criticality can be incorporated during this prioritisation process. Preventative Maintenance (inspections, work management) Preventive Maintenance is the systematic care, servicing and inspection of equipment for the purpose of maintaining it in serviceable condition and detecting and eliminating failure modes. The ultimate goal of doing preventive maintenance is to keep the equipment running to its required function and operational standard. Work management covers all procedures that are followed to ensure that maintenance work is carried out in an efficient and effective manner. Work execution procedures are usually enacted by maintenance supervisors or coordinators and apply to work being done under the authority of properly planned and scheduled work orders. Planning and Scheduling (budgeting, short and medium-term planning, scheduling) Maintenance planning and scheduling includes the budgeting, planning and scheduling of equipment maintenance strategies to ensure that activities are performed with optimum effectiveness and efficiency. Health, Safety and Environment Health Safety and Environmental (HSE) management encompasses the systems and procedures that are adopted to reduce the risk of causing harm to people and the environment that may be associated with the way in which maintenance activities are carried out. Condition Based Maintenance Condition Based Maintenance is an equipment maintenance strategy based on measuring the condition of equipment in order to assess whether it will fail during some future period, and then taking appropriate action to avoid the consequences of that failure. The condition of equipment could be monitored using Condition Monitoring, Statistical Process Control techniques, by monitoring equipment performance, or through the use of the Human Senses. The terms Condition Based Maintenance, On-Condition Maintenance and Predictive Maintenance can be used interchangeably. Autonomous Maintenance Autonomous Maintenance refers to the management routine and minor maintenance of equipment without the need or requirement for intervention from a dedicated maintenance team. It is the running repairs and adjustments that can be performed by the operators, before, after and during the use of the machinery. To enable these tasks to be completed effectively, operators need to be trained in the types of adjustments and repairs they are expected to perform, and given a degree of ownership of the equipment. Autonomous maintenance relies heavily on training and education to be able to identify the difference between normal and abnormal operation of the equipment they are operating. Organizational Support Components Information Architecture and Business Process Information Architecture is the flow of information and defines where and whom will be updating various data fields to ensure accurate information and accountability as it flows through various systems (GIS, CMMS, etc. ) Information flow mapping and allocating responsibility for data management increases the quality of the information. Business Process mapping identifies the process of tasks and responsibilities for the implementation of key processes in the business. 17. CONCLUSION This document provides a framework for the adoption of a structured approach to implement asset management best practice within Rand Water. The document clarifies the scope of asset management, identifies a quality framework to adopt, describes the high level structure and responsibilities, defines an improvement process, and defines the asset management system components that should be developed in the improvement process to implement a whole of life asset management approach within the organisation. The implementation process required to adopt and embed asset management practices in a structured manner is described in this document and is the recommended way forward for Rand Water. Annexure A:ASSET PORTFOLIOS The following table lists a comprehensive collection of Rand Water’s Strategic Assets. The Assets of Rand Water can broadly be grouped into the following portfolios (in alphabetical order): Buildings and Property| Civil Structures| Pipelines and Servitudes| Electrical Equipment| Mechanical Equipment| Process Plants| Automation Equipment| Access control Air conditioning CarportsCCTVElectricsEngine Rooms Estates Farms Fencing Fire protection Furniture GardensHostels Houses Interior decorationIntruder detectionLandOffices Passive SecurityPavingPlant uildings SewageStoresWorkshops Encroachment | Balancing TanksBarrage structureBridgesCarbonation baysConditioning baysControl WorksCanal Engine RoomsFiltersForebayFlocculators OverflowsPlant structuresRailway sidingsReservoi rsRoadsSediment tanksSumps| Air valvesBreak pressure tanksConnectionsCulvertsDeviationsElectrolysisFlow controlIn-line filtersInner liningsIsolation valvesJunctionsMeter chambersNon-return valvesOuter coatingsPipe manufacture plantPipelinesPipeline protectionPressure controlProtectionScour chambersScour valvesServitudesSurveyTunnelsValve chambersWater hammer systemsWater lossesEncroachment| BatteriesBattery chargersCablingControl desksControl panelsDistribution boardsEarthingElectricity supplyEmergency generatorsEnergy meteringEnergy managementHarmonic filtersHydro power LightingLightning protectionLV switchgearMimicsMinisubsMotor control centresMotorsMV switchgearPower factor correctionProtectionReticulationRing main unitsSubstationsTransformersUPS’sVSD’s / soft starters| ActuatorsBlowersCompressorsConveyorsCranesCrushersDesludge bridgesDust extractionGatesPipeworkPressure vesselsPumpsValvesNon return valvesSteelworkThickenersSump pumpsVehiclesEarth moving| AmmoniaCar bonationChlorineFerric ChlorideGAC filtrationLime burningLime slakingMembraneMilk of lime dosingOzonePoly ElectrolyteRWW treatmentSand filtrationSodium hypochloriteUltra violet lightChemical supplyChemical quality| ArchestraCommunicationControl CentresControl schemesFlood controlFlow meteringHuman Machine InterfacesInstrumentation PLCScadaInsql data historiansIndustrial networks Industrial serversIndustrial softwareSW configuration controlTelemetryIntelligent control| How to cite Test, Essay examples Test Free Essays Lesson Plan Teacher: Stama Ionela Valentina School: Sc. Gimnaziala Ungureni Nr. 1, Corbii Mari Date: 14th of March 2013 Grade: 7th Level: Pre-Intermediate Course-book: Shine, Macmillan Unit lesson: ‘’Superstition and mystery’’ New lesson: First conditional (part II) Lesson type: Integrated skills Aims: 1st – to provoke Ss to use words and phrases they have been learning recently; 2nd – to practise the First Conditional; 3rd – to watch PPT presentations regarding First Conditional; 4th– to solve some worksheets using First Conditional. We will write a custom essay sample on Test or any similar topic only for you Order Now Skills: listening, reading, writing, speaking Strategies: conversation, exercise, explanation Type of interaction: Teacher-whole classgroup workteacher-groups Aids: worksheets, cards, laptop, video projector. : Stages of the lesson Activity 1 Organizing the classTeacher greets the students and asks them a few ordinary questions. Strategies: conversationSkills: speaking, listeningSs activity: Ss answerAim: provoke Ss to use phrases and words they have been learning recently. Time: 1 minute Activity 2 Warm-up- SuperstitionTeacher gives the Ss to solve a task at the Bb. Strategies: explanationSkills: reading, writing, listeningSs activity: Ss solve the taskAim: to pass to the next stage of the lessonTime: 4 minutes Activity 3 Checking previous knowledgeTeacher asks Ss what they did last time they met. Teacher asks Ss questions about First Conditional. Strategies: conversation, explanationSkills: speaking, listeningSs activity: Ss answer their teacher’s questionsAims: to provoke SS use words and phrases they have been learning recentlyTime: 5 minutes Activity 4 Practice- worksheetTeacher gives each group a worksheet to be solved. Strategies: explanation, exerciseSkills: reading, writingSs activity: Ss read and solve the worksheetAim: solve some worksheets using First ConditionalTime: 7 minutes Activity 5 PPT activityTeacher puts a PowerPoint presentation and asks Ss to solve the exercise and to write down the sentencesStrategies: explanation, exerciseSkills: listening, reading, writingSs activity: Ss read the exercise and solve itAim: practise the First ConditionalTime: 5 minutes Activity 6 DominoTeacher gives each group a set of cards and a sheet of paper and asks the Ss to solve the dominoes and write the sentences on the paper. After finishing Ss read the sentences and write a few examples at the BbStrategies: explanation, exerciseSkills: listening, reading, writingSs activity: Ss solve the domino and write the sentencesAim: to practise the First ConditionalTime: 8 minutes Activity 7 WorksheetTeacher gives the Ss a worksheet to be solvedStrategies: explanation, exerciseSkills: reading, listening, readingSs acivity: Ss solve the taskAim: to practise the First ConditionalTime: 8 minutes Activity 8 Consequence GameTeacher gives the first statement ‘’ If I meet Lucy tonight, I’ll invite her to my party. Ss activity: The groups write this at the top of a piece of paper. Each student adds a sentence. They must begin by turning the main clause of the previous sentence into the If clause of the next sentence: If I invite Lucy to my party†¦ At the end will listen all the stories. Strategies: expkanation, exerciseSkills: rading, listening, writingAim. o practise the First ConditionalTime: 8 m inutes Activity 9 Teacher appreciates students activityStrategies: explanationSkills: listening, speakingSs activity: Ss listenTime: 1 minute Activity 10 AssignmentTeacher explains Ss what they have to do fot their homeworkStrategies: explanationSkills: listeningSs activity: Ss listenTime: 2 minutes Activity 11 GreetingsTime: 1 minute How to cite Test, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Pastoral Theology Women Ministry

Question: Critically examine the ministry and ordination of women in today's church with reference to 1corinthians 14:34 and 1timothy 2:12 in your answer? Answer: Introduction to Women Ministry The position of women or the role of women, who is also referred to as the daughter of Eve, in the Church is a debatable one, especially in respect to Pauls 1 Corinthian 14:34 and 1 Timothy 2: 12. Pauls, Corinthian 14:34 or to be more precise and correct the Corinthian 14:34-35, says that the women should remain silent in the churches; Paul here comments that women should not speak or rather they should not be allowed to speak in the churches (Du Toit, 2015). They should have a submissive attitude inside the churches, and if they have any kind of query then they should ask their husbands to solve that problem, and that too inside their home. 1 Timothy 2:12 by Paul is a verse that focus on the role of a woman as a teacher. According to this particular verse, women are not allowed to teach the man, nor are they allowed to exercise control over the man (Lioy, 2015). The verse or rather St .Pauls letter to Timothy asks women to remain silent and forbid them from teaching and exercising authority. Well, these explanations should not be regarded as the conclusion regarding the position of a woman as a teacher and a pastor, mainly because of two reasons. Firstly, all these verses were written originally in Greek, which was later, translated into English, and the meaning of theses English words and phrases have changed over the period. Secondly, these are all the literal meaning of the verses that were written and at times, the literal meanings are contradictory to what the author had said previously in the same scripture (Starbuck, 2015). Historical Background of Women Ministry and Ordination Throughout history, the role of women as teachers, preachers, as well as the pastor is an important matter of discussion, especially within the SDA or the Seventh Day Adventist Church.. Droste (2015), states that during the nineteenth century, theological discussion was actually in favor of women and it favored womens participation in church activities as the preacher or pastor. Therefore, the theological discussion centers on the Adventists. The theological discussion during the year 1866 states that Paul never forbade women from praying in public or from being the prophet. The discussion refers to the fact that the Bible mentioned about many prophets, who were women and it has mentions women leaders who were part of the local congregation (Payne, 2015). The discussion states that there was a male headship during the creation of Mankind and even during the fall of Adam and Eve; and this particular headship had remained during the time of Adventist. Therefore, women could play the pa rt that was assigned to a man, provided the authority that has been provided to her does not make her a usurper and at the same time, disorderliness is not allowed (Long, 2015). Defensive Views of Women Ministry and Ordination The issue of participation of women in ordination and church ministry could easily be resolved by stating that verses 34-35, of chapter 14 of the Corinthian by Apostle Paul, is an, oral law that is based on the Jewish tradition, more than that of being the word of the Almighty God. Another argument that is put forward in defense of the view about womens participation in church ordination and ministry is related to the misinterpretation of the verses. According to Payne (2015), during the nineteenth century, there are many people who had hold these two statements made by Apostle Paul, as declarative statements, and this is something, which is not all the right thing to do. First of all the Greek word gunaikes has been translated as women, whereas the real meaning of the word is wives (Jennings, 2015). The argument in the defense of the view of women ministry and ordination states that Paul never asked women to remain quiet in the church, or maintain silence in the church rather he has asked the wives to maintain silence because during the first century A. D most of the women were illiterate (Horrell, 2015). Therefore, at times their questions could cause disturbance inside the church premises. Moreover, Thornton (2015), also states that, previously in chapter 11, Apostle Paul has referred to the women prophet, and has also referred to the fact that if women had the proper attire then they can pray in public and at the same time could also prophecy as well. Theological discussion states that Paul actually wanted the wives to be silent, so that the other women in the church could speak; and this is the reason why in the letters to Timothy, Paul did not permit the women to teach. The modern commentators on bible, believe that the statement made in 1 Timothy 2:12, is also based on the lack of education during the ancient time. Moreover, the fact that in the letter to Timothy Paul has said that women should not author their husbands and does not refer to the inferior ity of women but rather to the subordination of women to their husbands (Jennings, 2015). Scholars Comment on the Two Passages The scholars consider the New Testament at times as a Big Lie because the New Testament has been copied several number of times. Therefore, while commenting on the 1 Corinthian 14:34, and also on verse 35, the scholars state that there are certain evidences which state that it was the scribes who had added these verses later in the New Testament (Mahon, 2015). Although, according to the scholar, such as Stanford (2015), deleting or adding verses was not at all an ethical thing, yet it was practiced at the time copying the Bible. In this case there are evidences that prove that, these two verses are not there in the original verses of Paul. Moreover, Pauls verses to Timothy, according to the scholars, have been regarded as a part of the proof text, therefore, the statement made there has been regarded as a definitive statement and it was established as a doctrine as well. Women Ministry in United Kingdom Scholars believe that the wrong translation of specified texts allowed some theologians to suppress the voice of women, especially it served the purpose of British Reformed theologians; who believed that women should not be allowed to teach or to rule. Although, the history speaks, of some women religious leaders like Antoinette Brown, who was ordained as the Universalist minister in the year 1853 in New England and the Wisconsin Congregation. She exercised her authority in this post for a term of 24 years. In the year 1917, the successor of the United Reform Church, the The Congregationalist Church, ordained one of their women for the first time. Although, in the 1993, the Act of Synod, came as an official structure, which refused womens ordination and ministry, and the womens right to exercise the power of the priest was also being rejected through this act. Conclusion The verses that are discussed here in very simple words could mean that women are not allowed to speak rather they are not even given the permission of exercising any kind of speech inside the church. Moreover, at the same time, it also means that women are people who should remain submissive and at times, they are inferior to a man and therefore should not author him. If women themselves go through the Bible, they will find women prophets, leaders and teachers, such as Miriam, four daughters of Philip, Deborah and many more. Therefore, these verses actually contradict what the author himself has said previously and raises the question whether the misinterpretations that were made are intentional or not, whether it was possible for the church to prohibit women to act in the role of the elders or the pastors. References Droste, C.J., 2015. 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